• İbrahim KARAM Near East University Vocational School of Health Services, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus
  • Kardelen RUSO European University of Lefke, Doctorate Program, Lefke, Northern Cyprus


Tinnitus is defined as auditory perception without external sound. There may be more than one cause of tinnitus. for this reason there is no single type of treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a tinnitus treatment that addresses the affected person's response to tinnitus. This study provides an overview of tinnitus, depression, which is among the psychological effects of tinnitus, and cognitive behavioral therapy for its treatment. It was also to emphasize that these approaches should be added to the rehabilitation methods in the Covid-19 pandemic. The treatment approach described in this study includes hands-on relaxation, daydreaming and distraction techniques, advice on environmental sounds, sleep management, cognitive restructuring of tinnitus-related thoughts and beliefs, and relapse prevention. The literature on CBT approaches to treat tinnitus was reviewed and concluded that CBT shows promise as a treatment for tinnitus-related distress. Due to its structure, tinnitus varies from person to person during the rehabilitation process. Progression of audiological and psychological rehabilitations together can help people more. Because tinnitus negatively affects the psychology of people, both in Covid-19 and in other cases, its treatment should not be put in the background.

Keywords: Cognitive behavioral therapy, tinnitus and depression, Covid-19.


Aazh, H., Danesh, A., & Moore, B. C. J.  (2021). Self-reported tinnitus severity prior to and during the COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 32 (9): 562–566. doi:10. 1055/s-0041-1731733.

Andersson, G. (2002). Psychological aspects of tinnitus and the application of cognitive–behavioral therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(7), 977-990.

Andersson, G., Porsaeus, D., Wiklund, M., Kaldo, V., & Christian Larsen, H. (2005). Treatment of tinnitus in the elderly: a controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy: Tratamiento del acúfeno en ancianos: una prueba controlada de terapia conductual cognitiva. International Journal of Audiology, 44(11), 671-675.

Andersson, G., Strömgren, T., Ström, L., & Lyttkens, L. (2002). Randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for distress associated with tinnitus. Psychosomatic Medicine64(5), 810-816.

Anlayışlı, C., & Serin, N.B. (2019). Lise öğrencilerinde internet bağımlılığı ve depresyonun cinsiyet, akademik başarı ve internete giriş süreleri açısından incelenmesi. Folklor/Edebiyat, 25(97-1), 753-767.

Aysan, F., & Bozkurt, N. (2004). Okul psikolojik danışmanlarının yaşam doyumu, stresle başa çıkma stratejileri ile olumsuz otomatik düşünceleri: İzmir ili örneklemi." XIII. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı 6, no. 9.

Baguley, D., McFerran, D.,& Hall, D. (2013). Tinnitus. The Lancet 382(9904): 1600–1607. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60142-7.

Beck, A. T., Rush, A., Shaw, B., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: The Guilford Press.

Belmaker, R. H., & Agam, G. (2008). Major depressive disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 358(1), 55-68.

Beukes, E. W., J. Onozuka, T. P. Brazell, and V. Manchaiah. 82021b). Coping with tinnitus during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Audiology 30 (2): 385–393. doi:10.1044/2021_AJA-20-00188

Beukes, E. W., Baguley, D. M., Jacquemin, L., Lourenco, M. P. C. G Allen, P.M., Onozuka, J., Stockdale, D., Kaldo, V., Andersson, G., & Manchaiah, V. (2020). Changes in tinnitus experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health 8, 592878. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.592878.

Bozkurt, N. (2000). Lise Öğrencilerinin Depresyon, Olumsuz Otomatik Düşünceler ve Kaygı Düzeyleriyle Akademik Başarıları Arasındaki İlişki. IX. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi. Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum.

Direktor, C., Simsek, Angelika H. & Serin, N.B. (2017). Negative automatic thoughts, emotional intelligence and demographical different variables affecting university students.  College Student Journal, 51(3), 391-397.

Erlandsson, S. (2000). Psychological profile of tinnitus patients. In R. S. Tyler (Ed.), Tinnitus handbook (pp. 25 – 57). San Diego: Singular. Thomson Learning.

Fuller, T., Cima, R., Langguth, B., Mazurek, B., Vlaeyen, J. W., & Hoare, D. J. (2020). Cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1).

Greimel, K. V., & Kröner-Herwig, B. (2011). Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). In Textbook of tinnitus (pp. 557-561). Springer, New York.

Geocze, L., Mucci, S., Abranches, D. C., de Marco, M. A., &  Oliveira Penido, N. (2013). Systematic review on the evidences of an association between tinnitus and depression. Brazilian Journal Of Otorhinolaryngology, 79(1), 106-111.

Hawton, K. E., Salkovskis, P. M., Kirk, J. E., & Clark, D. M. (1989). Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychiatric problems: A practical guide. Oxford University Press.

Henry, J. L., & Wilson, P. H. (1996). The psychological management of tinnitus: comparison of a combined cognitive educational program, education alone and a waiting-list control. The international tinnitus journal, 2, 9-20.

Işık, M. (2022). Evli kadınlarda özgül fobi, depresyon ve anksiyete düzeyleri ile cinsel işlevleri arasındaki ilişki [Unpublished Master's thesis]. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi.

Jun, H. J., & Park, M. K. (2013). Cognitive behavioral therapy for tinnitus: evidence and efficacy. Korean Journal Of Audiology, 17(3), 101-104.

Kröner-Herwig, B., Frenzel, A., Fritsche, G., Schilkowsky, G., & Esser, G. (2003). The management of chronic tinnitus: comparison of an outpatient cognitive–behavioral group training to minimal-contact interventions. Journal Of Psychosomatic Research, 54(4), 381-389.

Lo Re, V., Klungel, K. Chan, K., Panozzo, C., Zhou, W., & Winterstein, A. (2021). Global covid-19 vaccine rollout and safety surveillance—how to keep pace.  BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 373: N1416. doi:10.1136/bmj.n1416.

Mazurek, B., B. Boecking, and P. Brueggemann P.(2019). Association between stress and tinnitus—New aspects. Otology & Neurotology 40 (4): E467–E473. doi:10.1097/MAO.0000000000002180

Rief, W., Weise, C., Kley, N., & Martin, A. (2005). Psychophysiologic treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized clinical trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(5), 833-838.

Schlee, W., S. Hølleland, J. Bulla, J. Simoes, P. Neff, S. Schoisswohl, S. Woelflick, M. Schecklmann, A. Schiller, and S. Staudinger. (2020). The effect of environmental stressors on tinnitus: A prospective longitudinal study on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Clinical Medicine 9 (9): 2756. doi:10.3390/jcm9092756

Serin, N. B. & Aysan, F. (2021). Lise öğrencilerinin depresyon ve olumsuz otomatik düşüncelerinin cinsiyet ile akademik başarı açısından incelenmesi. Manisa Celal Bayar University Journal of Social Sciences, 19 (1), 285-296.  doi: 10.18026/cbayarsos.803563

Serin, N.B. & Gülcan, M. (2022). Covid-19 pandemi sürecinde üniversite öğrencilerinde olumlu ve olumsuz düşünme düzeylerinin incelenmesi. International Aegean Conferences on Social Sciences & Humanities-25-26/02/ 2022/ Izmir, Full Texts Book, Turkey, Issued: 10.03.2022, ISBN: 978-625-7720-76-2 S.1191-1206.

Sözlü, E. & Serin, N. B. (2019). Lise öğrencilerinde olumlu ve olumsuz otomatik düşüncelerin farklı değişkenler açısından ıncelenmesi (Kuzey Kıbrıs Örneklemi). International Journal of New Trends in Arts, Sports & Science Education (IJTASE), 8(3), 85-94.

Şereflican, M., Tuman, T. C., ÇAKIR, U., & Yurttaş, V. (2016). The association of perseived degree of handicap due to tinnitus and depression, anxiety symptoms in patients with tinnitus. Bozok Tıp Dergisi, 6(1), 51-54.

Teng, C. T., Humes, E. D. C., & Demetrio, F. N. (2005). Depression and medical comorbidity. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo), 32, 149-159.

World Health Organization. (2022). WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard.

Westin, V. Z., Schulin, M., Hesser, H., Karlsson, M., Noe, R. Z., Olofsson, U., & Andersson, G. (2011). Acceptance and commitment therapy versus tinnitus retraining therapy in the treatment of tinnitus: a randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research And Therapy, 49(11), 737-747.

Zachriat, C., & Kröner-Herwig, B. (2004). Treating chronic tinnitus: comparison of cognitive-behavioural and habituation-based treatments. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 33(4), 187-198.

Zhang, F., Rao, S., Cao, H., Zhang, X., Wang, Q., Xu, Y., ... & Baranova, A. (2022). Genetic evidence suggests posttraumatic stress disorder as a subtype of major depressive disorder. The Journal Of Clinical İnvestigation, 132(3).






Research Article